Look for the next GCER Newsletter in June. Past Newsletters can be found here.
News Archive - Page 6
Aug 24, 2015
The IZA and the Georgetown Center of Economic Research (GCER) of Georgetown University's Economics Department are pleased to announce the speaker schedule for the the fourth IZA@DC Young Scholar Program. The program, a joint effort by GCER and the IZA to bring outstanding PhD students to Washington, DC, is set to take place from September 27 -- October 2, 2015 at Georgetown University in Washington DC. Consult the GCER calendar for dates and times of the seminars during the week of Sept 27-Oct 2.Monday, September 28: Luigi Pistaferri (Stanford University)Luigi Pistaferri is a Professor of Economics at Stanford University, co-editor at the American Economic Review, and research fellow of the NBER, SEPR and IZA. Professor Pistaferri has a number of prominent research articles in the intersection of Labor and Macroeconomics. His research tackles critical topics on consumption and earnings inequality and on insurance-incentive trade offs of social insurance policies. His recent work focuses on the dynamics of intra-family insurance and time allocation.Tuesday, September 29: Peter Arcidiacono (Duke University)Peter Arcidiacono is a Professor of Economics at Duke University. He is known for research that spans a variety of topics in labor economics, including the effects of race on educational success, and the effects of search frictions in the matching and formation of relationships. Recent work explores the strategies for identifying anticipated returns from occupational choices.Wednesday, September 30: Kenneth Wolpin (Rice University)Ken Wolpin is Distinguished Research Professor and Lay Family Professor of Economics at Rice University. His contributions cover topics in labor economics, economic demography, development economics, health economics, and empirical methodology. Professor Wolpin is widely recognized for research that develops and applies of tools for estimating discrete choice dynamic programming models. His approach, combining economic theory, data, and econometrics is used throughout the economics profession.Thursday, October 1: Francine Blau (Cornell University)Francine Blau is the Frances Perkins Professor Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University. Professor Blau is also Research Associate of the NBER, a Research Fellow of the Center for Economic Studies/Ifo Institute and the IZA. Professor Blau has published extensively on topics ranging from the Economics of wage inequality and occupational choice to immigration, and gender issues. Her work on the gender pay gap was recently presented to the White House and the Council of Economic Advisors.Friday, October 2: Alexandre Mas (Princeton University)Alexandre Mas is Professor of Economics and Public Affairs at Princeton University. Professor Mas is a labor economist with broad expertise in the economics of unemployment insurance, welfare reform, and labor unions. Many of his contributions focus on the economics of the workplace. His recent work examines the effects of transparency in compensation on wage compression.Jun 11, 2015
New research by GCER economist Laurent Bouton is featured in the June 2015 on-line edition of the Atlantic. The article, entitled "Consumers love rankings, but they may end up doing more harm than good" discusses Bouton's paper with co-author Georg Kirchsteiger on the effect of rankings of products on the welfare of consumers. Bouton and Kirchsteiger identify several situations in which such rankings may be detrimental for consumers.Jun 3, 2015
The Washington area political economy conference took place at the Inter-American Development Bank on May 19-20, 2015. The Washington PECO is an annual political economy conference hosted jointly by Washington area institutions, including Georgetown Center for Economic Research, the Department of Economics, the School of Foreign Service and the Department of Government at Georgetown University, and the Inter-American Development Bank. The conference is held each Spring.May 16, 2015
Jason Albert, winner of the eighteenth annual Razin Prize, is shown being congratulated by George Akerlof, who delivered the Razin Policy Lecture on April 27, 2015. Jason received the prize for his dissertation paper titled "Strategic Dynamics of Antibiotic Use and the Evolution of Antibiotic-Resistant Infections".
The Razin Prize was established by the Razin family in 1997 to honor the memory of Ofair Razin (1966 - 1996; PhD, Georgetown University, 1996). The prize is accompanied by the Razin Lecture on economic policy by a distinguished economist.May 14, 2015
Featured Research Profile: Spring/Summer 2015
Leaning in,... sort of: Georgetown economist Mary Ann Bronson explores reasons why men and women make different post-secondary educational investments.
Women's rise in college graduation rates in the last 40 years is spectacular by historical standards. For much of the twentieth century, rates of college enrollment for women were much lower than those for men. Starting in the 1970s, the differences in enrollment rates declined rapidly, to the extent that enrollment differentials were reversed: women now make up around 57% of graduating college students in the U.S. Around the same time, U.S. women began converging with men along another dimension of educational investment: the choice of college major. In contrast to graduation rates, however, gender convergence in choice of major virtually ceased after the early 1980s. In 1985, women were awarded nearly 80% of education degrees and about 85% of degrees in nursing and health support fields, but less than 30% of hard science and engineering fields. The same is still true today.
The question of why women graduate from college at much higher rates than men, but with very different (and far lower-paying) majors has important implications for both individual and aggregate outcomesin the labor market. In her study, "Degrees are Forever: Marriage, Educational Investment, and Lifecycle Labor Decisions of Men and Women," GCER Fellow Mary Ann Bronson shows that two facts help explain these observed gender differences in educational choices. First, a college degree provides insurance against very low income for women, especially after divorce or household separation. Low-educated women not only draw from a substantially lower wage distribution than men, but are also more likely to have custody and financial responsibility for children. A college degree, regardless of major, allows access to higher paid jobs, providing insurance for women outside a two-earner household. Bronson estimates that the insurance value of a college degree in case of household dissolution is equivalent to about 31% of the overall return to college for women.
Secondly, Bronson shows that college majors differ substantially in the degree of 'work-family flexibility' they offer. Wage penalties for working part time or taking time out of the labor force are up to four times higher in science/business fields, as compared to other fields such as education, nursing, or the humanities. Because college women reduce their labor supply substantially during their prime child-bearing years - at age 35, only around 60% of college-educated women work full-time, compared to around 90% of college-educated men. Such flexibility appears to be particularly important for women. The data indicates that women tend to choose more flexible majors than men and are more likely to utilize the flexibility associated with these majors.
Based on these patterns, Bronson develops and estimates a structural model that simulates men's and women's lifetime choices concerning education, labor supply, marriage, and divorce. Bronson then uses the model to simulate the effects of different work-family flexibility policies on these choices. The results show that the most effective policies for increasing women's participation in business and STEM fields are non-discriminatory part-time work policies, in which employees with children below a certain age are entitled to work part-time. Policies that provide this kind of benefit to employees with children have been passed in a number of countries, including Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Bronson finds that such policies could increase the share of women choosing a science/business major from 34% to 45%.
On the other hand, Bronson finds that policies such as subsidized child care have relatively little effect, while extended maternity leaves (of more than one year) can in fact reduce the share of women choosing a science or business major, by significantly reducing the amount of experience women accumulate over the lifecycle. Because returns to experience are much higher in science/business fields, policies that allow women to remain in the workforce at temporarily reduced hours are much more effective at shifting women towards science and business fields than extended leave policies.